Treatment for Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer is the most common disease usually found in men. It is caused due to the formation of the tissues in the Prostrate and is followed by the most common symptoms of regular urination. Prostate Cancer is a curable disease that can be treated based on its signs and symptoms.

Two types of this cancer are there; high-grade and low-grade, so the treatment of prostate cancer varies from clinical trials to standard therapy. The treatment of prostate cancer is based on the factor of your health and the overall growth of cancer. It is treated in the following ways:

Active Surveillance and Watchful Waiting

Active Surveillance and watchful waiting are keen observations of the patient’s condition. Active Surveillance is done on older adults with other health issues, and watchful waiting is performed on children under the age of 5 who do not know much about their condition.

This treatment treats low-grade cancer as in this stage, the speed of cancer growth is prolonged, and this treatment is done to observe the signs and symptoms of the disease.

During this treatment, when the characteristics and the symptoms appear, several bold tests, rectal exams and biopsies are performed to check cancer growth. This treatment has proven helpful in the early delectation of cancer. The most common side effect of this treatment is uncontrolled urine flow.

Surgery

Surgery is performed on healthy patients who want to remove the entire cancerous cells and the lymph nodes in the early stage of the disease. The most common side effects of the surgery are uncontrollable urine, difficulty in erection and other risks of sexual functions. Different types of surgeries are performed on different patients based on the condition of their cancerous cells. Some types of surgery are listed below:

1. Radical laparoscopic prostatectomy

During this procedure, several cuts are made by the urologist in the patient’s abdomen, and then a tube with an attached lens is inserted in the stomach, and the prostate cancer is removed.

2. Robotic Radical laparoscopic prostatectomy

It is the most common type of surgery to remove prostate cancer. During this treatment, a small robot with an attached lens is inserted into the patient’s abdomen by the incision, which shows a clear image of cancer and is directed to remove the prostate cancer by the surgeon.

3. Open Radical Prostatectomy

This surgery removes the cancerous prostate cell and lymph nodes by incisions in the lower part of the abdomen and between the anus and scrotum.

Radiation therapy

Oncologists use high wavelength radiations and x-rays to remove prostate cancer and to kill the other cancerous cells after the surgery. There are two types of radiation therapy:

1. External beam Radiation Therapy:

It is the most common type of radiation therapy performed outside the body by using high-energy x-rays to destroy cancerous cells. External beam radiation therapy is a short course of treatment as it is completed within a week. After the surgery, external beam radiation therapy is used to kill the remaining cancerous cells if there is still a risk of developing cancer. It is performed on both low-grade and high-grade prostate cancerous people.

2. Internal Radiation therapy:

Brachytherapy is the most common type of internal radiation therapy. During this procedure, a high dosage seed of small-sized is directly placed in the prostate cancer for a more extended period. The time duration of this seed varies from 6 months to a year, and the performance of this seed is dependent on the radioactive sources. Internal Radiation Therapy is performed on low-grade patients with a low dose rate of brachytherapy.

The most common side-effects of radiation therapy are impotence and bowel infection.

Hormone therapy

In hormonal therapy, the male sex hormone androgen is removed because this hormone drives prostate cancer. So in this therapy, the male testosterone level is lowered by removing the testicles through surgery. This removal of testicles is also known as androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT).

Moreover, several drugs and medications are also used to lower the level of the functioning of testosterone because prostate cancer’s growth is dependent on this hormone. These are the following types of hormone therapy:

  • Orchiectomy: Orchiectomy is the complete eradication of the male sex organ testicles. By removing the testicles, the testosterone hormone level will also be lowered, and prostate cancer will be removed. This surgery is permanent and irreversible.
  • LHRH agonists: LHRH stands for luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. It is a medication used to block the ability of the body to produce testosterone hormone. The effects of this medication last longer, from 6 months to a year. But this treatment is not permanent and can be reversed after the medication is stopped.
  • AR inhibitors: AR stands for androgen receptors, which start to work after blocking testosterone hormone. So the doctors give the medication of AR inhibitors to block the functioning of the receptors and to allow the cells to enter male sex organs. The medication includes bicalutamide, flutamide and nilutamide.

The common side-effects of hormone therapy are low sexual desire, depression and difficulty in erection.

Chemotherapy

In Chemotherapy, such drugs are used, which kills the cancerous cells, and it has proven helpful in treating high-grade and low-grade cancerous people.

The procedure involves injecting the patient’s body or giving him pills and drugs. This treatment is done on a patient whose prostate cancer becomes out of control and spreads to the other parts of the body for those for whom the hormonal therapy did not work out.

Immunotherapy

This therapy makes the body’s immune system more robust to fight against cancerous prostate cells. Sipuleucel-T is used to boost the body’s natural defence system, killing the cancerous cells.

During this treatment, the lymphocytes are removed from the blood, grow in a laboratory, and then again injected into the body, which is fifths of prostate cancer. The common side-effect of this treatment is allergic reactions.

Drug therapy

Drug therapy is used to target specific cancer cells. Certain drugs are given to the patient to block the functioning of the cells and work on the body’s abnormalities. This treatment is performed on high-grade patients.

These are all the treatments for prostate cancer that are also proven helpful in completely eradicating the cancerous cells from the patient’s body.

References

  • https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/prostate-cancer/types-treatment
  • https://www.shifa.com.pk/prostate-cancer-treatment-what-are-your-options/
  • https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/prostate-cancer/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20353093
  • https://www.cancer.gov/types/prostate/patient/prostate-treatment-pdq#:~:text=External%20radiation%20therapy%2C%20internal%20radiation,bladder%20and%2For%20gastrointestinal%20cancer.
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